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2020 年考研英语

来源:www.longyueky.com         发布时间:2020-04-23

2020 年考研英语(一)试题

 

Section Ⅰ Use of English

 

Directions:

 

Read the following text.Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank  and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

Even if families are less likely to sit down to eat together than was once the case, millions of Britons will none the less have partaken this weekend of one of

the  nation's greattraditions: the  Sunday  roast.  __1__  a  cold  winter's day,   few

culinary  pleasurescan  __2__it.  Yet  as  we  report  now,  the  food  police  are

determined that this__3__ should be rendered yet another guilty pleasure __4__  to damage ourhealth.

 

The Food Standards Authority(FSA) has __5__ a public warning about the

risks of  a  compound called acrylamide that forms  in  some  foods cooked  __6__

high   temperatures.This means that people  should  __7__  crisping their roast

potatoes, spurn thin-crust pizzasand only __8__ toast their bread. But where is

the evidence to support such alarmist advice? __9__ studies have shown that

acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no __10__ evidence that it causes cancerin humans.

 

Scientists say the compound is"__11__ to be carcinogenic" but have no hard scientific proof. __12__the precautionary principle, it could be argued that it is

__13__ to follow the FSA advice. __14__, it was rumored that smoking caused cancer for years beforethe evidence was found to prove a __15__.

 

Doubtless  a   piece  of   boiled beef  can   always  be   __16__   up   on Sunday

alongside some steamed vegetables,without the Yorkshire pudding and no wine. But would life be worth living? __17__, the FSA says it  is not telling people to  cut out roast foods__18__, but to reduce their life time intake. However, their

__19__ risks coming across as exhort ation and nannying. Constant health scares just __20__ with noone listening.

 

1. A In B Towards C On D Till

 

2. A match B express C satisfyD influence

 

3. A patience B enjoyment Csurprise D concern

 

4. A intensified B privilegedC compelled D guaranteed

 

5. A issued B received Cignored D canceled


6. A under B at C for D by

 

7. A forget B regret C finishD avoid

 

8. A partially B regularly Ceasily D initially

 

9. A Unless B Since C If DWhile

 

10. A secondary B external Cinconclusive D negative

 

11. A insufficient B bound Clikely D slow

 

12. A On the basis of B At thecost of C In addition to D In contrast to

 

13. A interesting B advisableC urgent D fortunate

 

14. A As  usual B In  particularC By  definition D After all

 

15. A  resemblance Bcombination C  connection D pattern

 

16. A made B served C saved Dused

 

17. A To be fair B Forinstance C To be brief D in general

 

18. A reluctantly B entirely Cgradually D carefully

 

19. A promise B experience Ccampaign D competition

 

20. A follow up B pick up Copen up D end up Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A Directions:

Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

 

Text 1

 

A group of labour MPs, among them Yvette Cooper, are bringing in the new year with a call to institute a  UK  "town of  culture" award. The proposal is that   it should sit alongside the existing city of  culture title, which was held by  Hull   in 2017 and has been awarded to Coventry for zoz1. Cooper and her colleagues argue that the success of the crown for Hull, where it brought in £220m of


investment and an avalanche of arts, out not to be confined to cities. Britain'  town, it is true are not prevented from applying, but they generally lack the resources to put together a bit to beat their bigger competitions. A  town  of culture award could, it is  argued, become an  annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs.

 

Some might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that Britain is no longer be able to  apply for the much more  prestigious title of  European capital  of culture, a sough-after award bagged by Glasgow in 1990 and Liverpool in  2008. A cynic might speculate that the UK is on  the verge  of  disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for the post-Brexit world: after town of culture, who knows that will follow-village of culture? Suburb of culture? Hamlet of culture?

 

It  is also wise to recall that such titles are not  a cure-all. A badly run "year   of culture" washes in and out of a place like the tide, bringing prominence for a spell but leaving no lasting benefits to the community. The really successful holders of such titles are those that do a great deal more than fill hotel  bedrooms and bring in high-profile arts events and good press for a year. They transform the aspirations of the people who live there;  they  nudge  the  self-image of the city into a bolder and more optimistic light. It is hard to get  right, and requires a remarkable degree of vision, as well as  cooperation between city authorities, the private sector, community. groups and cultural organisations. But it can be done: Glasgow's year as European capital of culture can certainly be seen as  one of  complex series of  factors that have turned the city into the power of art, music and theatre that it remains today.

 

A "town of culture" could be not just about the arts but about honoring a town's peculiarities-helping sustain its high street,  supporting  local  facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action.

 

21. Copper and her colleague argue that a "town of culture" award would

___.

 

A. consolidate the town cityties in Britain

 

B. promote cooperation among Brain's towns

 

C. increase the economic strength of Brain's towns

 

D. focus Brain's limited resources on cultural events.

 

22. According to paragraph 2,the proposal might be regarded by some as

______..


A.a sensible compromise

 

B.a self-deceiving attempt C.an eye-catching bonus

D.an inaccessible target

 

23. The author suggests that atitle holder is successful only if it ______

 

A. endeavor to maintain itsimage

 

B. meets the aspiration of itspeople

 

C. brings its local arts toprominence

 

D. commits to its long-termgrowth

 

24. “Glasgow” is mentioned inParagraph 3 to present ______

 

A. a contrasting case

 

B. a supporting example

 

C. a background story

 

D. a related topic

 

25. What is the author'sattitude towards the proposal?

 

A. Skeptical B. Objective C.Favorable D. Critical Text 2

Scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. Scientists need joumals in which to publish

 

their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary  reward.  Other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also  for  free, because it is a central elementin the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.

 

With the content of papers secured for free, the publisher needs only fnd a market for its journal. Untilthis century, university libraries were not very price sensitive. Scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40%


on their operations,at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.

 

The Dutch giant Elsevier,which claims to publish  25%  of  the  scientific papers produced in the world, made profits of more than £900m last year, while  UK universities alone spent more than £210m in 2016 toenable researchers to access their own publicly funded research; both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.

 

The most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of Sci-Hub, a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers,  set  up  in  2012, which now claims to offer access to every paywalled article  published  since 2015. The success of Sci-Hub,which relies  on  researchers  passing  on  copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users andmust be transformed so that it works for all participants.

 

In Britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by  funding bodies. In some ways it has been very successful. More than half of all British scientific research is now published under open access  terms:  either  freely available from the moment of publication, or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.

 

Yet the new system has notworked out any cheaper for the universities. Publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. These range from around £500 to $5,000. A report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these"article preparation costs"had been  steadily rising at arate above inflation. In some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet: labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places. In both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.

 

26. Scientific publishing isseen as "a licence to print money" partly because________

 

[A] its funding has enjoyed asteady increase .

 

[B] its marketing strategy has been successful.

 

[C] its payment for peer review is reduced.

 

[D] its content acquisition costs nothing.


27. According to Paragraphs 2and 3, scientific publishers Elsevier have________

 

[A] thrived mainly on university libraries.

 

[B] gone through an existential crisis.

 

[C] revived the publishing industry.

 

[D] financed researchers generously.

 

28. How does the author feelabout the success of Sci-Hub?

 

[A] Relieved.

 

[B] Puzzled.

 

[C] Concerned

 

[D] Encouraged.

 

29. It can be learned from Paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms________

 

[A] allow publishers some roomto make money.

 

[B] render publishing mucheasier for  scientists.

 

[C] reduce the cost of publication  substantially.

 

[D] free universities from financial burdens.

 

30. Which of the following characterises the scientific publishing model?

 

[A] Trial subscription isoffered.

 

[B] Labour  triumphs overstatus.

 

[C] Costs are well controlled.

 

D] The few feed on the many. Text 3

Progressives often support diversity mandates as a path  to  equality  and  a way to level the playing field.But all too often such policies are an insincere


form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.

 

A pair of bills sponsored byMassachusetts state Senator Jason Lewis and House Speaker Pro Tempore Patricia Haddad, to ensure "gender  parity"  on boards and commissions, providea case in point.

 

Haddad and Lewis are concerned that more than half the state-government boards are less than 40 percent female. In order to ensure that elite women have more such opportunities, they have proposed imposing government quotas. If the bills become law, state boardsand commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats forwomen by 2022.

 

The bills are similar to ameasure recently adopted in Califomia, which last year became the first stateto require gender quotas for private companies. In signing the measure,California Governor Jerry Brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifiespeople on the basis of sex, is  probably unconstitutional.

 

The US Supreme Court frowns onsex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an"important" policy interest, Because the California law applies toall boards, even where there is no history of prior  discrimination,  courts arelikely to rule that the law violates the  constitutional  guarantee  of"equal protection".

 

But are such government mandates even necessary? Female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the pereentage of women in  the general population, but sowhat?

 

The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government interference.According to a study  by  Catalyst,  between 2010 and 2015 the share of women onthe  boards  of  global  corporations increased by 54 percent.

 

Requiring companies to make gender the primary qualific ation for board membership will  inevitably  lead  toless experienced private sector boards.  That  is exactly what happened when Norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.

 

Wrting in The New Republic,Alice Lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on suchboards has  led  to  a"golden skirt "phenomenon, where the same clitewomen scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.


Next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity, remember that such policiesare largely self-serving measures that make their sponsors feel good but dolitle to help average women.

 

31. The author believes thatthe bills sponsored by Lewis and Haddad wills________

 

[A] help little to reduce gender bias.

 

[B] pose a threat to the state government.

 

[C] raise women's position inpolitics.

 

[D] greatly broaden career options.

 

32. Which of the following istrue of the California measure?

 

[A] It has irritated private business owners.

 

[B] It is welcomed by the Supreme Court,

 

[C] It may go against the Constitution.

 

[D] It will settle the prior controversies.

 

33. The author mentions thestudy by Catalyst to ilustrate____

 

[A] the harm from arbitrary board decision.

 

[B] the importance of constitutional guaranees.

 

[C] the pressure on women inglobal corporations.

 

[D] the needlessness of government interventions.

 

34. Norway's adoption of anation wide corporate gender quota  has led to____

 

[A] the underestimation ofelite women's role.

 

[B] the objection to female participation on boards.

 

[C] the entry of unqualifiedcand idates into the board.

 

[D] the growing tension between labor and management.


35. Which of the following can be inferred from the text?

 

[A] Women's need in employ mentshould be considered.

 

[B] Feasibility should be aprime concern in policymaking.

 

[C] Everyone should try hard to promote social justice.

 

[D] Major social issues should be the focus of legislation.

 

Text 4

 

Last Thursday, the FrenchSenate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax

 

on large multinationals that provide digital services to consumers or users in France. Digital services include everything from providing a platform for selling goods and services online to targeting advertising based on user data, and the tax applies togross revenue from such servces. Many French politicians and media outlets havereferred to this as a“GAFA tax," meaning that it is designed to applyprimarily to companies such as Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon- in otherwords, multiational tech companies based in the United States.

 

The digital services tax nowawaits the signature of President Emmanuel Macron, who has expressed supportfor the measure, and it could go into effect within the next few weeks. But ithas  already sparked significant controversy, with the Unite Sates tradere presentative opening an investigation into whether  the tax discriminates against American companies, which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against France.

 

The French tax is not just aunilateral move by one country in  need  of  revenue. Instead, the digital services tax is part of a much larger trend, with countries over the past few years proposing or putting in place an  alphabet soup  of new international taxprovisions. These have included Britain's DPT (diverted profits tax),Australia's MAAL (multinational antiavoidance law), and India's SEP(significant economic presence) test, to name but a few. At the same time, theEuropean Union, Spain, Britain and several other countries  have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.

 

These unilateral developments differ in their specifics, but they are all designed to tax multinationals onin come and revenue that countries believe they should have a right to tax, even if international tax rules do not grant them that right. In other words, theyall share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep ;up with the current economy.


In response to these many unilateral measures, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD) is currently working with 131 countries to reach a consensus by the endof 2020 on an  international solution. Both France and the United States are involved in the organization' s work, but France's digital services tax and the American response raise questions  about what the future holds for the international tax system.

 

France‘s planned tax is aclear warning: Unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system, other nations are likely to follow suit, and American companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations thatwill prove burden some and costly.

 

36. The French Senate haspassed a bill to_____

 

[A] regulate digital servicesplatforms.

 

[B] protect French companies'interests .

 

[C] impose a levy on tech multinationals.

 

[D] curb the influence of advertising.

 

37. It can be learned fromParagraph 2 that the digital services tax _____

 

[A] may trigger counter measures against France.

 

[B] is apt to arouse criticismat home and abroad.

 

[C] aims to ease internation altrade tensions.

 

[D] will prompt the techgiants to quit France.

 

38. The countries adopting theunilateral measures share the opinion that

_____

 

[A] redistribution of techgiants' revenue must be ensured.

 

[B] the current internation altax system needs upgrading.

 

[C] tech multinationals'monopoly should be prevented.

 

[D] all countries ought toenjoy equal taxing rights.

 

39. It can be learned fromPara 5 that the OECO's current work_____

 

[A] is being resisted by US companies.


[B] needs to be read justed immediately.

 

[C] is faced with uncertain prospects.

 

[D] needs to in involve more countries.

 

40. Which of the following might be the. best title for this text?

 

[A] France Is Confronted with Trade Sanctions

 

[B] France leads the charge onDigital Tax

 

[C] France Says "NO"to Tech Multinationals

 

[D] France Demands a Role inthe Digital Economy Part B

Directions:

 

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41

-45, choose the most suitable onefrom the fist A-G to fit into each of the  numbered blanks. There are two extrachoices, which do not fit in  any  of  the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET. (10 points)

 

[A] Eye fixactions are brief

 

[B] Too much eye contact isinstinetively felt to be rude

 

[C] Eye contact can be afriendly social signal

 

[D] Personality can affect howa person reacts to eye contact

 

[E] Biological factors behindeye contact are being investigated

 

[F] Most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers

 

[G] Eye contact can also beaggressive.

 

In a social situation, eyecontact with another person can show that you are paying attention in afriendly way. But it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate tums toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility. Here 's what hard science  reveals  about  eye  contact:

 

41. ________________


We know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother's eyes,  and she will look back . This mutual gaze is a major part of the  attachment between mother and child. Inadulthood, looking someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention. It  can catch  someone's  attention in a crowded room,"Eye contact and smile" can signal availability and confidence,acommon-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist Monica Moore.

 

42.________

 

Neuroscientist Bonnie Augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. This was also found in high- functioning men with someautistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. Specific brainregions that respond during  direct  gaze  are being explored by other researches,using advanced methods of brain scanning.

 

43.________

 

With the use of eye-tracking technology, Julia Minson of the Harvard  Kennedy School of Government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages, depending on the situation  While eye  contact  may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it's more likely to be associated with dominance OF intimidation inadversarial situations. Whether you're a politician or a parent, it might behelpful to keep 'in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you're trying to  convince someone who has  a different set of beliefs than you," said Minson.

 

44.________

 

When we look at a face or apicture, our eyes pause on one  spot at  a time,  often on the eyes or mouth.These pauses typically occur at about  three  per second, and the eyes then jumpto another spot, until several important points in  the image are registered like a series of snapshots. How the whole image is then assembled and perceivedis still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.

 

45.________

 

In people who score high in atest of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance,according to the Finnish researcher Jari Hietanen and colleagues. Our finding sindicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ-" A more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative


emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.

 

Part C Translation Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

Following the explosion of creativity in Florence during the 14th century known as the Renaissance, themodern world saw a departure from what it  had  once known. It turned from Godand the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to  being.  Renaissance  ideas had spread throughout Europe well into the 17th century, with the arts and  sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. 46.With (the gap between) the church'steachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the medieval and modern periods  had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.

 

During the Renaissance, thegreat minds of Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and GalileoGalilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. 47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancientways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at thecentre of our universe. Copernicus theorized in  1543  that  in actual fact, allof the planets that we knew of  revolved not  around the Earth, but the Sun, asystem that was  later upheld by  Galileo at  his own  expense. Offering up such atheory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy,and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death.Galileo was excommunicatedby the Church and imprisoned for life forhis astronomical observations and his support of the heliocentric principle.

 

48. Despite attempts by the Church to strong-arm this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the  universe  functioned were being made,and at a rate that the people-including the Church -could no longer ignore. It was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.

 

The Church's long-standingdogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists.This very fact embodied the  new  ways  of  thinking that swept through Europeduring most of the 17th century. 49. As many took on the duty of trying tointegrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the


world. The Renaissancewas over and it was time for a new era-the Age  of  Reason.

 

The 17th and 18th centurieswere times of radical change and curiosity. Scientific method,reductionism and the questioning of Church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty,tolerance and progress. 50. Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase'sapereaude'or 'dare to know', after Immanuel Kant used it in his essay An  Answer tothe Question: What is  Enlightenment? It was  the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.

 

Section IV Writing Part A

Directions: The Student Union of your university has assigned you to inform the international students an upcoming singing contest. Write a notice in about100 words. Write your answeron the ANSWER SHEET. Do not use your name in the notice.

 

Part B

 

52: Directions:

 

Write an essay of 160-200words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should:

 

1) Describe the picturebriefly;

 

2) Interpret the implied meaning, and

 

3) Give your comments