Section ⅠUse of English Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones. 1 of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones 2 on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. 3 you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you 4 can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate 5 to civilization, one of which is to follow the land...
When you find yourself well 6 a trail, but not in a completely 7 area, you have to answer two questions: Which 8 is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water. 9 , if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should 10 see signs of people.
If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be 11 how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.
Another 12 : Climb high and look for signs of human habitation. 13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to 14 gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15 the woods. Head toward these 16 to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for 17 light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.
18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the 19 we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can 20 you to civilization.
1. [A]Some [B]Most [C]Few [D]All
2. [A]put[B]take[C]run [D]come
3. [A]Since [B] If [C] Though [D]Until
4. [A]formally [B] relatively [C] gradually [D] literally
5. [A] back [B] next [C] around [D] away
6. [A]onto [B]off[C]across [D]alone
7. [A]unattractive[B] uncrowded [C]unchanged [D]unfamiliar
8. [A] site[B]point [C]way [D]place
9. [A] So [B] Yet [C]Instead [D]Besides
10. [A]immediately [B] intentionally [C]unexpectedly [D] eventually
11. [A]surprised [B]annoyed [C]frightened [D]confused
12. [A] problem [B]option [C]view [D]result
13. [A] Above all [B]In contrast [C] On average [D] For example
14. [A]bridge [B]avoid [C]spot [D]separate
15. [A] from [B] through [C]beyond [D] under
16. [A] posts [B]links [C]shades [D]breaks
17. [A] artificial [B] mysterious [C] hidden [D] limited
18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] incidentally [D] Generally
19. [A] memories [B] marks [C] notes [D] belongings
20. [A] restrict [B] adopt [C] lead [D] expose 1-20 参考答案及解析：
1. 生活在一个 GPS 系统，数字地图和其他导航应用程序都在我们的智能手机上轻易获取”。空格之
后的语句与前面语义方向一致，再考虑到句中的 without a phone，可知，此处需要双重否定表达肯定， 所以，选择 few，符合文意;
2. 【C】run 固定搭配;此题考查与介词 on 的搭配情况;run on battery 表示手机使用电池得以运行; 其他选项的搭配为：put on(增加;假装;使…上场);take on(承担;呈现;具有;流行);come on( 快点;开始;要求;上演;);语义搭配不通顺，故选择 run on 搭配;
3. 【B】If 逻辑关系;此处考查逻辑关系。空格处所在句为“... 你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路，...找不到北方，我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航...文明”;前后句之间构成假设的逻辑关系，所以选择 if;其余选项：since(因为，自从);though(虽然); until(直到) 代入后，不符合语义表达;
4. 【D】literally 词义辨析题;空格处所在句为“假如你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路，...找不到北方，我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航...文明”;literally 表示确实地，真正地;符合语义表达;其余选项： formally(正式地);relatively(相对地);gradually(逐渐地)不符合语义表达;
5. 【A】back 词义辨析题;出题处的语义表达“我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航...文明”，只有 back 与前文的 lost(迷路)形成相互呼应，故而选择 back;
6. 【B】off 词义辨析题;空格所在句提到“为当你发现自己...路径。 但不是完全...的
因此，根据句意表达，off(远离， 离开)符合句意;其它选项：onto(在…之上;对…了解);across (穿过， 根穿)，alone (独白地，单独地)，故选择 off;
7. 【D】unfamiliar 词义辨析题;根据出题处的语义表达，“为当你发现自己...路径。 但不是完全... 的区域”，语义搭配，unfamiliar 更符合要求;其他选项：unattractive (不吸引人的);
uncrowded (不利挤的，宽敞的);C 选项 unchanged (未改变的，无变化的);不符合语义表达;
8. 【C】way 词义辨析题;根据出题处的语境表述“你需要回答两个问题：在这个特殊区域中，哪个... 是下坡路?哪里有最近的水源?”因此只有way 符合要求;其他选项：site(地点;位置;场所);point(要点;得分;
9. 【A】so 逻辑关系题;出题句指出“生活在山谷里的人，基本上需要淡水为生，...如果你下山，沿着水走，你会发现人类的踪迹...”，此处语义逻辑很明显，考察因果逻辑关系;故选择 so，其它选项：yet(但是，然而); instead(反而，替代); besides(此外，而且);不符合句义要求;
10. 【D】eventually 词义辨析题;出题句提及“...如果你下山，沿着水走，你会发现人类的踪迹...”， 只有 eventually(最后，终于)符合题目要求，语义通顺;其它选项：immediately (立即，立
11. 【A】surprised 词义辨析题;出题句提及“如果你之前去过这个地方，一定要注意熟悉景象，你或许会...快速识别出一块特征明显的石头或者树木来唤起你的记忆”;此处只有 surprised 符合题目要求; 其他选项带有明显的贬义色彩，故不符合;
12. 【B】option 词义辨析题;本文第一段中提到“如果你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路了，而且你真的找不到北方，我们会有一些技巧可言帮助你回到文明社会”，此处考查的地方就是前文提及的“另一个...：登到高处寻找有人类居住的标志”;只有 option(选择)符合句义及情感色彩要求;
13. 【D】For example 逻辑关系题;出题句前后构抽象到具体的例证关系(前文提到“另一个选择就是登高寻找有人类居住的标志”，与后文的 look for signs 形成抽象到具体的过程)，故选择 For example;
14. 【C】spot 词义辨析题;此题需借助前面的语义内容及逻辑关系辅助做题;此处需填入的动词和look for 语义相近，故选择 spot(发现)，符合语义表达;其他选项：bridge(架桥，渡过);avoid(避开，消除);separate(分开);不符合语义要求;
15. 【B】through 词义辨析题;分析：本题为语义题及固定搭配题，考查 carve 与 woods 之间的关系，根据常识可知，路应该是穿过森林开凿出来的，故本句意为穿过森林开凿出的公路，故 B 选项 through 为正确答案。
16. 【D】breaks 语义辨析题;本题为语义题，根据上一句信息，因为人为原因而造成的 gaps in the
tree line，不难判断，朝着有树木缺口的地方走，就能找到出去的路，故 D 选项 breaks 为正确答案。
17. 【A】artificial 词义辨析题及逻辑关系题;因题干中 such as 表示举例关系，故我们首先根据例子信息可以判断文中 fires and streetlights 可以确定火与街灯的共同特征是人造光源，故本题 A 选项artificial 为正确答案。
18. 【A】Finally 语义题;文章后面指出假设你在人类常去的地方迷路，寻找我们在地面上留下的 ，
种假设情况，故本题 A 选项 finally 为正确答案。
19. 【B】mark 词义辨析题;根据常识，在人类常去的地方，地面上必定有很多标志，故寻找我们在地面上留下的标志，在此处更符合文意，故本题 B 选项 marks 为正确答案。
20. 【C】lead 词义辨析题;道路上的树皮刻痕、轮胎印和其他特征能够指引你去有人烟的地方，此外，本题处的单词应该与前文中的 navigate 同义，故本题 C 选项 lead 为正确答案。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Financial regulations in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making
not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.
“Short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.
The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”.
In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.
In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.
Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company
investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.
Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.
21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the .
A. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility
B. help corporations achieve larger profits
C. build a new system of financial regulation
D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives
22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate .
A. the conditions for generating quick profits
B. governments’ impatience in decision-making
C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies
D. “short-termism” in economics activities
23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be .
24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate .
A. the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”.
B. the significance of long-term thinking.
C. the approaches to promoting “long-termism”.
D. the prevalence of short-term thinking.
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Failure of Quarterly Capitalism
B. Patience as a Corporate Virtue
C. Decisiveness Required of Top Executives
D. Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers 21-25 参考答案及解析：
21. 【A】enhance banker's sense of responsibility;细节题。题目中明确出题段落(According to Paragraph 1)及相应的信息点(one motive in imposing the new rule)，因此，答案来源句则为第一段的第三句(The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution 这个规则主要目的是让银行家为不良风险负责以及修复公众对金融机构的信任)，那么答案基本就很容易提取出来。选项中的“sense of responsibility”则对应到句中的“enhance banker's sense of responsibility(增加银行的责任感)”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘，在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。
22. 【D】 "short-termism" in economic activities;细节题。题干中的定位信息在“Alfred Marshall”上，直接定位到第二段的第二句“He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting...”， 定 位 信 息 里 的 “this financial impatience”则是回指第二段首句的“Short-termism”，故信息点则为“Short-termism”，所以最 佳选项则为"short-termism" in economic activities，而其他选项在定位信息中未提及;
23. 【B】 adverse;细节题。此题的定位信息为题干的“transient investment”，直接定位到第三段 的 第 二 句 “Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty”，从四个选项的褒贬正负来看 indirect、minimal 和 temporary 为中性的表述，只有 B 选项的 adverse 为明确的负面表达，意思为“不利的”，与原文中的“hinder”(阻碍打扰)对应上。
24. 【C】the approaches to promoting "long-termism" ;例证题。根据题干的具体信息定位，美国和法国的例子是用来支撑什么论点。原文的第五、六段则提供了具体的信息，第五段中美国延迟发放才上任一年左右的高管绩效津贴，继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行的现状;第六段则提及在法国持股两年以上者拥有更大的选票权。所以，最佳选项应为“促进长期主义的方法”，与原文一致;
25. 【B】Patience as a Corporate Virtue;主旨题。题干中的 title 为标题题的信息，所以此题考查的是文章的主旨大意;B 选项里的 patience 可以对应到全文中反复出现的主题词“short-termism”和“long-termism”，corporate 本身在文章中出现多次，所以 B 选项则为最近标题，体现主旨大意;其余选项均不能概括全文，故排除。
Grade inflation--the gradual increase in average GPAs(grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise GPAs.
Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall GPA.
The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to
do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s registrar,“we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
A. The change of course catalogs.
B. Students’ indifference to GPAS.
C. Colleges’ neglect of GPAS.
D. The influence of consumer culture.
27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
A. To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
B. To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.
C. To prepare graduates for a challenging future.
D. To increase universities’ income from tuition.
28. According to Paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to .
A. obtain more financial support
B. boost their student enrollments
C. improve their teaching quality
D. meet local governments’ needs
29. What does the phrase “to be aligned”(Line 5, Para.6) most probably mean?
A. To counterbalance each other.
B. To complement each other.
C. To be identical with each other.
D. To be contradictory to each other.
30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by .
A. assessing its feasibility
B. analyzing the causes behind it
C. comparing different views on it
D. listing its long-run effects 26-30 参考答案及解析：
26. 【D】The influence of consumer culture;细节题。根据题干中的关键词 grade inflation 可以定位到首段第一句话，此句话的句子主干：“Grade inflation is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education.” 题干中的 be regarded as 对应原文中的 is considered，题干中的 the cause of(后边接结果)与原文中的 a product of (前边接结果)都表示因果关系。选项 D 中consumer 是原文中的复现，其他选项都不具备干扰性，因此答案选择 D。
27. 【A】To help freshmen adapt to college learning;细节题。根据题干中的关键词，我们只能定位到文章的第二段，但是第二段讲的是 grade forgiveness 具体是什么，并没有提及它的目的，然后接下看第三段的首句，出现了 this little-known practice 指的就是 grade forgiveness。而且题干中的the original purpose 对应原文中的在第三段第二句话: “When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses.”选项 A 中的 freshmen 是原词复现，help 是对应原文中的 give them a second chance，adapt to 对应原文中的 struggled in their transition to，college learning 对应原文中的 college-level courses。因此答案为 A。
28. 【A】obtain more financial support;细节题。根据题干中的关键词 paragraph 5、grade forgiveness 和 colleges 可以定位到第五段的第一句，即 grade forgiveness 能够满足学生的需求，但是对应选项并没有对应的答案，所以接着往下看，提到了国家基金与他们的成功有关，得到更好地分数意为这拿到更多的钱。选项 A 中的 financial support 指的就是 state funds。因此答案为 A。
29. 【C】to be identical with each other;猜词题。根据题干，可以定位到第六段最后一句话：“On
this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.”所以解题的关键是找到 this 指代的内容。This 指代的是前一句话，即：因为学生和家长都希望通过大学学历来找工作，所以学校的最佳利益是尽可能地把学生培养成有能力胜任的人，或者至少看起来是那样。由此可以的出学生和学校的目标是一致的，选项 C 中的 be identical with 表示的是与……相同，因此答案为 C。
30. 【B】analyzing the causes behind it;主旨题。题干的字面意思是作者是通过什么样的方式来检验 grade forgiveness 的实践操作，但是是考查文章的主旨，属于主旨题。阅读每段的段落大意句，可以得出文章主要讲解的是 grade forgiveness 的原因。因此答案为B。
This year marks exactly two countries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.
Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions:”What is intelligence, identify, or
consciousness? What makes humans humans?”
What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “Westworld” and “Humans”.
Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a
machine to get there.”
But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.
Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of AI. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.
On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.
While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.
To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.
31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it
A. fascinates AI scientists all over the world.
B. has remained popular for as long as 200 years.
C. involves some concerns raised by AI today.
D. has sparked serious ethical controversies.
32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness
A. helps explain artificial intelligence.
B. can be misleading to robot making.
C. inspires popular sci-fi TV series.
D. is too limited for us to reproduce it.
33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles
A. can hardly ever be found.
B. is still beyond our capacity.
C. causes little public concern.
D. has aroused much curiosity.
34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledge is one of
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants
B. Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI
C. The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable
D. AI Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control 31-35 参考答案及解析：
31. 【 C 】 involves some concerns raised by AI today; 通 过 题 干 Mary Shelly’s novel Frankenstein 及题文同序原则可定位至文章第一段，在该段尾句,fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come. 此句中 ethical questions 可同义替换题干中的 concern。故 C 为正选。
32. 【D】is too limited for us to reproduce it;观点细节题。可通过关键词 consciousness 回文定位至原文第 2 段尾句部分：we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there. 可知我们将意识注入机器的能力是有限的，因为没有好的理论可以解释。
33. 【B】is still beyond our capacity;根据题干关键词可定位至文章第 3 段,AI “vision”today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans.And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.该句说到：当下，人工智能的思维还不能达到人类的精密程度，去让机器去预设每一种驾驶情形是一个困难的编程问题。由此说明，去解决人工智能所带来的道德问题，是在人类的能力范围之外的。
34. 【A】affirmation;态度题 ，根据题干中的 the author’s attitude ,Google’s pledges.回文定位到第八段，，开头 while 转折，while the statement is vague, 与 vague 相反的即是观点，所以表示正向情感的词即是正解。affirmation 表示确定。
35. 【C】Frankenstein, the Novel predicting the Age of AI;主旨题。本文首段通过引用 Mary Shelley 的书引出本文要探讨的话题新技术所引发的道德问题。特别是在最后一段指出 AI 所涉及的道德问题已经触手可及。全篇复现了 AI 和 conscience 这两个关键词，所以答案选 C
States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.
The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.
The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state. Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.
Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices. Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”
The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they hadn’t before. Big chains have been collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state a purchase is being shipped to. Amazon.com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party
sellers who use the site don’t have to.
Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. Sellers that use eBay and Etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven’t been collecting sales tax nationwide. Under the ruling Thursday, states can pass laws requiring
out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.
Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. Those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. The
Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.”
36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will
A. Dette business’ relutions with states
B. put most online business in a dilemma
C. make more online shoppers pay sales tax
D. forces some states to cut sales tax
37. It can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions
A. have led to the dominance of e-commerce
B. have cost consumers a lot over the years
C. were widely criticized by online purchases
D. were considered up favorable by states
38. According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has
A. hindered economic development
B. brought prosperity to the country
C. harmed fair market competition
D. boosted growth in states revenue
39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling
A. Internet entrepreneurs B. Big-chair owners
C. Third-party sellers D. Small retailers
40. In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author
A. gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences
B. describes the long and complicated process of its making
C. presents its main points with conflicting views on them
D. cities some saces related to it and analyzes their implications 36-40 参考答案及解析：
36. 【C】 make more online shoppers pay sales tax;本题为细节题，根据题干关键字“the Supreme Court decision Thursday”定位到原文第一段“States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that ...”前半句已经明确提出各州的在线购物可能要交税，对应选项 C，原词“ online”加
37. 【D】were considered up favorable by states;根据题干“learned”可知本题为推理题，根据关键字“the overruled decisions ”定位到原文第二段的两句，大意为“州政府抱怨以前的政策使每年税收损失惨重，因此以前的政策很难再收取网上营业税”两句表示出的意思都是对州政府的不利，对比
四个选项，得出答案 D,州政府认为原政策对州会不利，因此驳回这项决定会对州有有利，为正话反说。38.【C】harmed fair market competition;本题为细节题，根据题干关键词“Justice Anthony Kennedy”“the physical presence rule”定位到原文第四段的第二句和第三句，大意为实体店规定导
致州政府税收亏损，接着下一句 Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented from on an even playing field.”该规定限制了州政府长期繁荣，并妨碍市场参与者参与公平竞争。对比四个选项，D 选项为“破坏了公平市场竞争”和原文“competing”“ market participant”一一对应，为正确答案。
39. 【B】Big-chair owners;根据题干“likely”得出本题为推理题，利用关键词“welcome the Supreme Court ruling”定位到原文第五段第一句“ The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since....”对于大公司来说这项规定是一种胜利，因为...，只需找到关键词“big chain”即可选出 B 选项：大型连锁公司。
40. 【D】cities some cases related to it and analyzes their implications;本题为主旨题，需找出作者的相应观点与论证，根据题干关键词 In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday”回顾每段首尾句，推测每段大意，第一段讲述最高法院通过了征收在线营业税的决定，第二段介绍之前的裁决及后果是对州政府不利的，第三段介绍了原来裁决涉及到的案例，第四段陈列了法官的观点，即以前的裁决是有问题的，第五段主要讲述新判决会对大型连锁超市产生有利的影响，第六段讲述新裁决对州外卖价的影响，第七段表示新的判决得到零售界的肯定，因此本文的思路为：首段引出新判决，二三四段列举相关案例，五六七段对其影响进行讲述，对比四个选项，得出 D:作者在讲述这个判决时引用了相关案例并分析了他们的影响。
Part B Directions:
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are
required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A. These tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. Learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments—from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding—then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.
B. Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.
C. None of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.
D. Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up
no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Paris of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.
E. In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the
best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. “This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.
F. These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.
G. There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell, “yes,” and I yell. “No,” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.
41-45 参考答案及解析： E D G B A
41. E [In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it.]
段落排序解题若首段未给出，首先需要大家通读全部选项首句话，本句首句话中的句间衔接关系排除选首段。本篇文章中，A 选项第一句话中含有指代关系词 these 故根据该词确定本选项直接排除，B 选项有 of cause 衔接上下文的词出现，D 选项可以作为首段的可能选项，E 选项也可以作为首段的可能选项，G 选项首句中含有 better way 比较级，故本题的答案应在 D 或 E 选项中得出，根据 D 选项人物Carnegie 和 E 选项人物 Dale Carnegie 的名称特点，可以得知首次出现应为全名形式，故本题的答案应为 E 选项。
42. D [Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them.]
首段为 Carnegie 的观点信息，故下段复现应为该人物的观点承接，故通过扫读剩下的选项可知该题只有 D 选项可以承接。
43. G [There is a better way to win arguments. ]
该 题 上 一 段 最 后 一 句 话 为 “None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win -- in one way.” 可 知 these tricks 是对上文信息的否定，下文应该复现 win arguments 的肯定的表述，根据选项分析可知 G 选项首句 There is a better way to win arguments.正好与 F 选项尾句形成首尾衔接。
44. B [Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. ]
该 题 上 段 为 G 段 ， 尾 句 讲 述 的 是 Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers. 而根据衔接可确定 G 段讲述的是成功的讨论，B 选项首句 not so successful 正衔接上文，转折讲述不成功的案例。
45. A [These tools can help you win every argument--not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. ]
上 段 C 选 项 中 Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially.
Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.最后这几句话主要讲的是有关于谈话的四种手段，正好与 A 选项首句中的 These tools 形成呼应关系，故本题答案应为 A 选项。
Part C Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were
1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
Why is so much bad science published? A recent paper, titled “The Natural Selection of
Bad Science”, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.
(48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.
Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. Unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
(46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary
考点：there be 句型、定语从句、状语从句、词义选择
结构分析：含有定语从句和状语从句的复合句。句子主干为：There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense. in the medical journals 为介词短语作状语修饰主干内容，其中名词 journals 又带有一个由which 引导的定语从句，which 指代 nonsense, 而定语从句中又含有一个由 when 引导的状语从句， 从句层层包裹，形成复合句，翻译时注意理清从句间的关系。
(47) Nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.
结构分析：含有分词结构和定语从句的复合句。句子主干为：nowadays anyone … has to have published twice the number of papers….其中，“applying for a research post”为现在分词短语作定语修饰 anyone,“that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago”为定语从句修饰 papers, “twice the number of…”为比较结构。
参考译文：如今，任何申请研究职位的人都必须发表两倍于 10 年前同一职位所需的论文数量。
(48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.
结构分析：本句为主谓结构的简单句。句子主干为：Attempts have been made….其中，“to curb this tendency”和“by…”分别为不定式短语和介词短语作状语修饰句子主干内容。
(49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.
结构分析：本句为含有状语从句的复合句。主干为：This would be reasonable…;“…that scientists can…”为 that 引导的同位语从句解释说明fact 内容。“arrange to cite ….“和”get associates to do so…“为动宾结构并列和前面名词 scientists 构成主谓宾结构。
(50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
结构分析：本句为含有状语从句和宾语从句的复合句。主干为：…we must ensure that…其中，“if we are serious about…”为条件状语从句，“ensuring that …”为现在分词结构作介词宾语;“…that our institutions encourage that kind of science”为 ensure 引导的宾语从句。
Section Ⅲ Writing Part A
Suppse you are working for the “Aiding rurd Primary School” project of your university. Write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying details
of the project.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.(10 points)
I am greatly pleased to receive your letter and I am writing to you to express my sincere hope that I can offer you some details about the project of Aiding Rural Primary School, the details are as follows.
In the first place, the aim of this project is to help rural children in a poor financial condition to improve their English, which needs you make an English teaching plan in advance. In the second place, this project will be held at June, lasting about 15days, therefore it is essential for you to prepare some clothes and daily necessities.In the last place, importance should be attached to the role played by the language due to the fact that there is a few people understanding English, which needs you are capable of speaking basic Chinese.
I wish my introduction could satisfy your requirement, and look forward to discussing more details with you.
Yours Sincerely, Li Ming
教学计划，其次这个项目将在 6 月进行并将持续 15 天，因此你需要准备一些衣物和日用品。最后，由于当地的人基本不懂英语，所以你最好学习一些汉语的基本表达。
今年的小作文考得主要是关于一个项目的介绍，并给这位志愿者回信，那么这篇小作文可以写介绍信，在之前的考试中也有类似的话题，所以构思上还是很容易的。第一段主要表达一下自己收到来信的 心情并表达一下自己这封回信的目的，第二段可以展开对项目进行介绍，比如项目的目标、背景、时间 或者地点等，也可以拓展一些自己会写的内容，第三段就是常规的客套，希望这封回信能帮到对方或者 在未来能与对方进行进一步的讨论。只要你有作文框架和思路，这篇作文还是很容易拿高分的。
Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should
1) describe the pictures briefly,
2) interpret the meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
The cartoon provides us with a thought-provoking scene: two men are climbing a hill, but one of them desires to give up due to tiredness, while the other one encourages him to keep going.
Undoubtedly, the cartoonist aims at reminding us of the significance of persistence. At the top of the list, we should attach importance to perseverance mainly due to that it can enable us to ameliorate ourselves so we can be qualified for future career promotion, and be ready for meeting the forthcoming challenges.What’s more, we ought to place a high value on the role played by persistence in personal growth. Put it another way, in this ever-changing world, perseverance is to personal growth what water is to fish. To sum up, if persistence misses our attention in any possible way, we will suffer a great loss beyond imagination.
Hence, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from the above cartoon. For one thing, we should frequently use it to enlighten the young. For another, we should cultivate the awareness of teenagers that it is very vital to keep going toward our goals. Only by doing so,
can we become winner in the face of difficulties.
毫无疑问，图画的作者旨在提醒我们坚持重要性。首先，我们应该重视坚持，主要是因为坚持可以让我们完善自身，这样我们未来才有资格得到职业生涯的进步，才能做好准备迎接以后的挑战。另外， 我们也应该重视坚持在个人成长方面的作用。在这个多变的时代，坚持对于个人成长就像水对于鱼一样重要。 换言之，如果我们以任何可能的形式忽视坚持，我们将遭受非常巨大的损失。因此，从以上图画中得出积极的含义非常重要。一方面，我们应该经常用它来启迪年轻人。另外一方面，我们应该培养青少年重视坚持的意识。只有这样，我们才能成为困难面前的赢家。
一方面，“坚持”这个话题可以说是考研英语写作传统话题，早在 2004 年就考过坚持题材的漫画： “终点又是新起点”，今年的考题再次验证反复研读真题的重要性;另外，坚持话题宏观上属于个人成功品质类话题。另一方面，这次作文的难点主要集中在图画描述和主题词的书写上，只要考前安心备考的同学都能顺利作答。整体而言，2019 考研英语(一)大作文属于难度适中的题目。